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cbse-class9-history-and-civics-2016-->View question

Asked On2017-07-24 05:05:41 by:13priya

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(a) Waste Land Rules To the colonial offiicials all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. Therefore grazing lands were also considered as wastelands as they produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. The colonial government wanted to bring the grazing lands under cultivation so that they could get revenue and agriculture goods form this land. According to wasteland rules, the uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals who were granted concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Therefore, expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and created problems and hardships for the pastoralists. 
(b) Forest Acts By the mid nineteenth century, various Forest Acts were also being enacted in the different provinces of India. Through the Forest Acts, the forests were divided into two categories; reserved forests and protected forests. 
(i) Reserved Forests Some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared 'Reserved'. No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests. 
(ii) Protected Forests In these forests some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movements were severely restricted. They needed a permit for entry into the forests. The British believed that during grazing the herds trampled over the saplings and munched away the shoots and prevented trees from growing. So, they enacted these laws to protect the forests. Effects of the Forest Acts Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available. They could enter only by getting pemit for entry. If they overstayed the specified period of time they were liable to fines. Their lives became difficult and full of hardships Their traditional rights were severely restricted. 
(c) Criminal Tribes Act The British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who hawked their goods in villages and pastoralists who changed their places of residence every season, moving in search of good pastures for their herds. Those who were nomadic were considered to be criminal and those who were settled as peaceable and law abiding. In 1871, the colonial government passed the Criminal Tribes Act. By this Act many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Effects of Criminal Tribes Act After this act was enforced, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move out without a permit. The village police kept a continuous watch on them. They could no larger move from one place to another. 
(d) Grazing Tax The Grazing Tax in India was introduced by the colonial goverment in the mid nineteenth century. Pastorlists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient. In the decades between the 1850s and the 1880s, the right to collect tax was auctioned out to contractors. The contractors tried to extract as high a tax as they could, By the 1880s, the government began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists. Effects of the Grazing Tax Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. The tax went up rapidly. So, the economic hardship of the pastoralists increased. 

Answerd on:2017-07-25 Answerd By:prajwalamv

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