What are the primary objectives of an irrigation method List the various methods of irrigation adopted for distribution of water in the field

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What are the primary objectives of an irrigation method List the various methods of irrigation adopted for distribution of water in the field?

According to vtu question paper - July 2013

By:manjarimattur

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 Necessity or Importance of Irrigation:
India is basically an agricultural country and its resources on depend on the agricultural output.
Prosperity of our country depends mainly upon proper development of agriculture. Even after 60 years of Independence, we have not succeeded in solving our food problems. The main reason for this miserable state of affair is that we still continue to remain at the mercy of rain and practice age old methods of cultivation.
Plants usually derive water from nature through rainfall. However, the total rainfall in a particular area may be either insufficient or ill timed. In order to get the maximum yield, it is necessary to have a systematic irrigation system for supplying optimum quantity of water at
correct timing.
Importance of irrigation can be summarized under the following four aspects:
1. Area of less rainfall: Artificial supply of water is necessary when the total rainfall is less than the water requirement of crops in such cases, irrigation works may be constructed at a place where more water is available and conveyed to water deficit areas.
Eg: The Rajasthan canal supplies water from the river Yamuna to the arid regions of Rajasthan where annual rainfall is less than 100 to 200 mm.
2. Non-Uniform rainfall: The rainfall in a particular area may not be uniform over the entire crop period. Rainfall may be there during the early period of crops and may become scanty or unavailable at the end resulting in lesser yield or total loss of the crop.
Collection of water during periods of excess rainfall and supplying the stored water during periods of scarcity may prove beneficial to the farmers. Most irrigation projects in India are based on this aspect.
3. Commercial crops with additional water: The rainfall in a particular area may be sufficient to raise the usual crops but insufficient for raising commercial and cash crops such as sugarcane and cotton. In such situations, utilizing stored water by irrigation facilities is advantageous.
4. Controlled Water Supply: Dams are normally meant for storing water during excess flow periods. But in situations of heavy rainfall, flooding can be controlled by arresting the flow in the river and excess water can be released during low flow conditions.

manjarimattur

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