Explain the following phases in the menstrual cycle of a human female cbse Biology class 12

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Explain the following phases in the menstrual cycle of a human female: cbse-Biology-class-12

i. Menstrual phase
ii. Follicular phase
iii. Luteal phase

Asked by:tarun101

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i. Menstrual phase Menses takes place on the 3rd –5th day of the menstrual cycle of 28 days. Producing LH is considerably reduced. This  causes  degeneration  of  the  corpus  luteum  and  reduction  in  the production of progesterone and oestrogen. The uterine endometrium breaks down and menstruation starts. Endometrium cells, secretions, blood and the unfertilised ovum constitute menstrual flow.

ii. Follicular phase
The follicular phase  begins on the 6th day and lasts up to the 13th or 14th day in a 28-day menstrual cycle.

FSH stimulates the ovarian follicle to secrete oestrogen.

Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of cells of the uterine endometrium.

The endometrium becomes thicker because of rapid cell multiplication. This is accompanied by the growth of the uterine glands and blood vessels.

iii. Luteal phase

The luteal phase  begins on the 15th day and lasts up to the 28th day in a 28-day menstrual cycle.

LH  causes  ovulation.  The  remaining  cells  of  the  ovarian  follicles  are stimulated by LH to develop the corpus luteum.

The  corpus  luteum  secretes  a  large  amount  of  progesterone  which stimulates  the  uterine  glands  to  produce  an  increased  amount  of  watery mucus.

Secretions  of  watery  mucus  by  the  vaginal  glands  and  the  glands  of  the fallopian tubes also increase.

Progesterone  also  maintains  the  endothelium  which  is  necessary  for  the implantation of the fertilised ovum and other events of pregnancy.

In  the  absence  of  fertilisation,  the  corpus  luteum  degenerates  which causes disintegration of the endothelium, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Answerd By:Fututron

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