Explain with a neat sketch the principle and construction of fabric filter Give applications

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Explain with a neat sketch the principle and construction of fabric filter Give applications.

(DEC. 2011, DEC 2013/JAN 2014, DEC 2013/JAN 2014, JUNE / JULY 14) 

By:manjarimattur

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Fabric filtration is a physical separation process in which a gas or liquid containing solids passes through a porous fabric medium, which retains the solids. This process may operate in a batch or semicontinuous mode, with periodic removal of the retained solids from the filter medium. Filtration systems may also be designed to operate in a continuous manner. As with other filtration techniques, an accumulating solid cake performs the bulk of the filtration. Importantly, an initial layer of filter cake must form at the beginning of the filtration operation (1,2). Fabric filtration effectively controls environmental pollutants in gaseous or liquid streams. In air pollution control systems, it removes dry particles from gaseous emissions; in water pollution control, filtration removes suspended solids; in solid-waste disposal, filtration concentrates solids, reducing the landfill area required. Often, filtration processes simultaneously reduce air, water, and solid-waste disposal problems. An air pollution control system might, for example, remove particles and/or gases from an emission source and might consist of a scrubbing device that removes particulates by impaction and the gases by chemical absorption. The reaction products of gases and chemicals can produce a crystalline sludge. A fabric filter may also be used to remove solids from water so that the water can be recycled. As a result, effluent slurry does not present a water pollution problem. Effective use (optimization) of a fabric-filter system would minimize problems with waste disposal.
APPLICATIONS
General The use of fabrics as a porous filter medium in both liquid and gas cleaning systems has been stated, and the separation of solids from liquids will be discussed in detail in other chapters of this handbook series. The major emphasis of this section is on gas cleaning, and, in most applications, the gas considered is air. 
Gas Cleaning Filters used to clean gases are categorized in this section in five different ways according to the energy required, the fabric employed, the type of cycle, the service, and the application. The first category includes either high-energy or low-energy filters, depending on whether the filters are operated at high or low filter pressure drops
Efficiency Fabric filters are extremely efficient solids removal devices and operate at nearly 100% efficiency.

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