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Give a brief account of the evolution of psychology. cbse-11-psychology-2015

Give a brief account of the evolution of psychology.


Asked On2017-07-14 05:43:45 by:13priya

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The evolution of psychology was an outcome of ancient philosophy. It later varied with the development of different approaches of psychological study. The formal beginning of modern psychology took place in 1879 with the establishment of an experimental laboratory in Leipzig by Wilhelm Wundt.

The initial approach to study psychology was based on introspection or structuralism in which the individuals were asked to describe their experiences.

It was followed by functionalism that studied the working of the mind and the impact of behaviour upon people's interaction with their environment.

Gestalt psychology emerged as a reaction to structuralism in the early 20th century and focused on the organisation of the perceptual experiences.

Another reaction was the development of behaviourism that studied behaviour or responses in a measurable and objective form.

This was followed by psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud that viewed human behaviour as a dynamic manifestation of unconscious desires, conflicts and their gratification.

In contrast, the humanistic perspective emphasised the free will of human beings and their natural striving to grow and unfold their inner potential.

Further, Cognitive perspective was a combination of Gestalt approach and structuralism and focused on how an individual perceived the world.

Later, Constructivism viewed human beings as actively constructing their minds through the exploration of physical and the social world.

It was followed by Vygotsky's view that human mind develops through social and cultural processes in which the mind is perceived as culturally constructed by joint interaction between children and adults.

Therefore, the evolution of psychology passed through various stages and levels. Starting from the roots of philosophy, it took a new direction and included numerous theories of structuralism, functionalism, behaviourism, constructivism, etc. However, in contemporary era the discipline of psychology has grown into a scientific discipline, which deals with various processes underlying human experiences and behaviours.

Answerd on:2017-07-17 Answerd By:Fututron

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Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolutionAdaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Some evolutionary psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the modularity of mind is similar to that of the body and with different modular adaptations serving different functions. Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is the output of psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments

Answerd on:2019-06-17 Answerd By:Ak

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