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Cloud-Computing-14SCS12-VTU-unit-1-->View question

Asked On2017-05-17 10:17:40 by:Nikhil-bharadwaj

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i) Magnetic bearing and true bearing .

The points of intersection of earth's axis with the surface of earth are known as geographical north & south poles. At any point on earth's surface the line passing through the point and north & South Pole of the earth is called true meridian.

The angle made by a line with true meridian is called the true bearing of the line. The north & south pole of the earth are established by astronomical observations.
The horizontal angle from magnetic north for a given survey line is called magnetic bearing of the line.
ii) Whole circle bearing and quadrantal bearing system.
In whole circle bearing (WCB) the bearing of line at any point is measured w.r.t magnetic
meridian. Its value may vary from 00 3600. 00
is magnetic north & the bearing increases in
clockwise direction. This type of bearing system is used in prismatic compass.
In quadrantal bearing system (QB) : the bearing are read from north or from south. Towards east or west. The angle measured w.r.t magnetic meridian is designated with letter N or S in the beginning to indicate whether its from North or from south. The letters E or W indicates whether bearing read
is to the east or west respectively.
Reduced bearing (RB): This system is also known as reduced bearing system.
iii) Magnetic dip and Magnetic declination
A balanced needle after magnetisation will dip towards north in northern hemisphere in southern hemisphere.If it is taken to the pole of earth it will take vertical position. The vertical angle between the horizontal at the point and direction shown by perfectly balanced needle is known as dip.
All important surveys are plotted with reference to true meridian since the direction of magnetic meridian at a place changes with time. The horizontal angle made between the two meridians such as magnetic and true meridian is known as magnetic declination.
iv) Traversing
Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks. It is also used in geodesy. Traverse networks involve placing survey stations along a line or path of travel, and then using the previously surveyed points as a base for observing the next point. Traverse networks have many advantages, including: Less reconnaissance and organization needed;
While in other systems, which may require the survey to be performed along a rigid polygon shape, the traverse can change to any shape and thus can accommodate a great deal of different terrains;
Only a few observations need to be taken at each station, whereas in other survey networks a great deal of angular and linear observations need to be made and considered;Traverse networks are free of the strength of figure considerations that happen in triangular systems;Scale error does not add up as the traverse is performed. Azimuth swing errors can also be reduced by increasing the distance between stations.
An open, or free traverse (link traverse), consists of a series of linked traverse lines which do not return to the starting point to form a polygon.
A closed traverse (polygonal, or loop traverse) is a series of linked traverse lines where the terminal point closes at the starting point.
v) Isogonic and Agonic lines Line joining the points of equal variation is known as Isogonic line and the line joining the points of zero variation is know as Agonic line.

Answerd on:2015-01-16 Answerd By:manjarimattur

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