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Operating-Systems-10CS53-unit-6-->View question


Asked On2017-05-15 00:31:41 by:pallaviaithaln

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DOS and Windows

File Attributes:

Traditionally, in DOS and Microsoft Windowsfiles and folders accepted four attributes:

  • Archive: When set, it indicates that the hosting file has changed since the last backupoperation. Windows' file system sets this attribute on any file that has changed. Backup software then has the duty of clearing it upon a successful backup.
  • Hidden: When set, indicates that the hosting file is hidden. MS-DOS commands like dir and Windows apps like File Explorer do not show hidden files by default, unless asked to do so.
  • System: When set, indicates that the hosting file is a critical system file that is necessary for the computer to operate properly. MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows use it to mark important system files. MS-DOS commands like dir and Windows apps like File Explorer do not show system files by default even when hidden files are shown, unless asked to do so.
  • Read-only: When set, indicates that a file should not be altered. Upon opening the file, file system API usually does not grant write permission to the requesting application, unless the application explicitly requests it. Read-only attributes on folders are usually ignored.

As new versions of Windows came out, Microsoft has added to the inventory of available attributes on the NTFS file system, including but not limited to:

4.4BSD-Lite and derivatives

In 4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-Lite, files and directories (folders) accepted four attributes that could be set by the owner of the file or the superuser (the "User" attributes) and two attributes that could only be set by the superuser (the "System" attributes):

  • (User) No-dump: When set, it indicates that the file or directory should not be saved during a backup operation.
  • (User and System) Immutable: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not be altered. Attempts to open the file for writing, create a file within the directory, remove a file from the directory, rename a file within the directory, rename the file or directory, or remove the file or directory will fail with a permissions error.
  • (User and System) Append-only: When set, indicates that the file should only be appended to.
  • (User) Opaque: When set on a directory, indicates that the directory is opaque when viewed through a union stack.

FreeBSD added some additional attributes, also supported by DragonFly BSD:

  • (User and System) No-unlink: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not be renamed or removed. Attempts to rename or remove the file or directory will fail with a permissions error.

FreeBSD also supports:

  • (System) No-archive: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not be archived.
  • (System) Snapshot: When set, indicates that the file or directory is a snapshot file. This attribute is maintained by the system, and cannot be set, even by the super-user.

whereas DragonFly BSD supports:

  • (User and System) No-history: When set, indicates that history should not be retained for the file or directory.
  • (User) Swapcache: When set, indicates that clean filesystem data for the file, or for the directory and everything underneath the directory, should be cached in swap space on a solid-state disk.
  • (System) Swapcache: When set, indicates that clean filesystem data for the file, or for the directory and everything underneath the directory, should not be cached in swap space on a solid-state disk.
  • (System) Archived: When set, indicates that the file or directory may be archived.

NetBSD added another attribute, also supported by OpenBSD:

  • (System) Archived: When set, indicates that the file or directory is archived.

OS X added another attribute:

  • (User) Hidden: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not, by default, be displayed in the GUI; ls will display it, however.

    File Types:

    Files: As we know that Computers are used for storing the information for a Permanent Time or the Files are used for storing the Data of the users for a Long time Period. And the files can contains any type of information means they can Store the text, any Images or Pictures or any data in any Format. So that there must be Some Mechanism those are used for Storing the information, Accessing the information and also Performing Some Operations on the files.


    There are Many files which have their Owen Type and own names. When we Store a File in the System, then we must have to specify the Name and the Type of File. The Name of file will be any valid Name and Type means the application with the file has linked.

     




    So that we can say that Every File also has Some Type Means Every File belongs to Special Type of Application software�s. When we Provides a Name to a File then we also specify the Extension of the File because a System will retrieve the Contents of the File into that Application Software. For Example if there is a File Which Contains Some Paintings then this will Opened into the Paint Software.

     

    1) Ordinary Files or Simple File: - Ordinary File may belong to any type of Application for example notepad, paint, C Program, Songs etc. So all the Files those are created by a user are Ordinary Files. Ordinary Files are used for Storing the information about the user Programs. With the help of Ordinary Files we can store the information which contains text, database, any image or any other type of information.

     

    2) Directory files. : The Files those are Stored into the a Particular Directory or Folder. Then these are the Directory Files. Because they belongs to a Directory and they are Stored into a Directory or Folder. For Example a Folder Name Songs which Contains Many Songs So that all the Files of Songs are known as Directory Files.

     

    3) Special Files. : The Special Files are those which are not created by the user. Or The Files those are necessary to run a System. The Files those are created by the System. Means all the Files of an Operating System or Window, are refers to Special Files. There are Many Types of Special Files, System Files, or windows Files, Input output Files. All the System Files are Stored into the System by using. sys Extension.

     

    4) FIFO Files: The First in First Out Files are used by the System for Executing the Processes into Some Order. Means To Say the Files those are Come first, will be Executed First and the System Maintains a Order or Sequence Order. When a user Request for a Service from the System, then the Requests of the users are Arranged into Some Files and all the Requests of the System will be performed by the System by using Some Sequence Order in which they are Entered or we can say that all the files or Requests those are Received from the users will be Executed by using Some Order which is also called as First in First Out or FIFO order



Answerd on:2019-09-03 Answerd By:Annaliya

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DOS and Windows

File Attributes:

Traditionally, in DOS and Microsoft Windows, files and folders accepted four attributes:

  • Archive: When set, it indicates that the hosting file has changed since the last backup operation. Windows' file system sets this attribute on any file that has changed. Backup software then has the duty of clearing it upon a successful backup.
  • Hidden: When set, indicates that the hosting file is hidden. MS-DOS commands like dir and Windows apps like File Explorer do not show hidden files by default, unless asked to do so.
  • System: When set, indicates that the hosting file is a critical system file that is necessary for the computer to operate properly. MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows use it to mark important system files. MS-DOS commands like dir and Windows apps like File Explorer do not show system files by default even when hidden files are shown, unless asked to do so.
  • Read-only: When set, indicates that a file should not be altered. Upon opening the file, file system API usually does not grant write permission to the requesting application, unless the application explicitly requests it. Read-only attributes on folders are usually ignored.

As new versions of Windows came out, Microsoft has added to the inventory of available attributes on the NTFS file system, including but not limited to:

4.4BSD-Lite and derivatives

In 4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-Lite, files and directories (folders) accepted four attributes that could be set by the owner of the file or the superuser (the "User" attributes) and two attributes that could only be set by the superuser (the "System" attributes):

  • (User) No-dump: When set, it indicates that the file or directory should not be saved during a backup operation.
  • (User and System) Immutable: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not be altered. Attempts to open the file for writing, create a file within the directory, remove a file from the directory, rename a file within the directory, rename the file or directory, or remove the file or directory will fail with a permissions error.
  • (User and System) Append-only: When set, indicates that the file should only be appended to.
  • (User) Opaque: When set on a directory, indicates that the directory is opaque when viewed through a union stack.

FreeBSD added some additional attributes, also supported by DragonFly BSD:

  • (User and System) No-unlink: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not be renamed or removed. Attempts to rename or remove the file or directory will fail with a permissions error.

FreeBSD also supports:

  • (System) No-archive: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not be archived.
  • (System) Snapshot: When set, indicates that the file or directory is a snapshot file. This attribute is maintained by the system, and cannot be set, even by the super-user.

whereas DragonFly BSD supports:

  • (User and System) No-history: When set, indicates that history should not be retained for the file or directory.
  • (User) Swapcache: When set, indicates that clean filesystem data for the file, or for the directory and everything underneath the directory, should be cached in swap space on a solid-state disk.
  • (System) Swapcache: When set, indicates that clean filesystem data for the file, or for the directory and everything underneath the directory, should not be cached in swap space on a solid-state disk.
  • (System) Archived: When set, indicates that the file or directory may be archived.

NetBSD added another attribute, also supported by OpenBSD:

  • (System) Archived: When set, indicates that the file or directory is archived.

OS X added another attribute:

  • (User) Hidden: When set, indicates that the file or directory should not, by default, be displayed in the GUI; ls will display it, however.

    File Types:

    Files: As we know that Computers are used for storing the information for a Permanent Time or the Files are used for storing the Data of the users for a Long time Period. And the files can contains any type of information means they can Store the text, any Images or Pictures or any data in any Format. So that there must be Some Mechanism those are used for Storing the information, Accessing the information and also Performing Some Operations on the files.


    There are Many files which have their Owen Type and own names. When we Store a File in the System, then we must have to specify the Name and the Type of File. The Name of file will be any valid Name and Type means the application with the file has linked.

     




    So that we can say that Every File also has Some Type Means Every File belongs to Special Type of Application softwares. When we Provides a Name to a File then we also specify the Extension of the File because a System will retrieve the Contents of the File into that Application Software. For Example if there is a File Which Contains Some Paintings then this will Opened into the Paint Software.

     

    1) Ordinary Files or Simple File: - Ordinary File may belong to any type of Application for example notepad, paint, C Program, Songs etc. So all the Files those are created by a user are Ordinary Files. Ordinary Files are used for Storing the information about the user Programs. With the help of Ordinary Files we can store the information which contains text, database, any image or any other type of information.

     

    2) Directory files. : The Files those are Stored into the a Particular Directory or Folder. Then these are the Directory Files. Because they belongs to a Directory and they are Stored into a Directory or Folder. For Example a Folder Name Songs which Contains Many Songs So that all the Files of Songs are known as Directory Files.

     

    3) Special Files. : The Special Files are those which are not created by the user. Or The Files those are necessary to run a System. The Files those are created by the System. Means all the Files of an Operating System or Window, are refers to Special Files. There are Many Types of Special Files, System Files, or windows Files, Input output Files. All the System Files are Stored into the System by using. sys Extension.

     

    4) FIFO Files: The First in First Out Files are used by the System for Executing the Processes into Some Order. Means To Say the Files those are Come first, will be Executed First and the System Maintains a Order or Sequence Order. When a user Request for a Service from the System, then the Requests of the users are Arranged into Some Files and all the Requests of the System will be performed by the System by using Some Sequence Order in which they are Entered or we can say that all the files or Requests those are Received from the users will be Executed by using Some Order which is also called as First in First Out or FIFO order



Answerd on:2015-01-16 Answerd By:Anagha

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