Prior exposure of plants to pathogens is known to increase resistance to future pathogen attacks This phenomenon is known as Gate Biotechnology 2014 question paper

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Prior exposure of plants to pathogens is known to increase resistance to future pathogen attacks. This phenomenon is known as: (-Gate Biotechnology 2014 question paper)

(A) systemic acquired resistance 
(B) hypersensitive response 
(C) innate immunity 
(D) antibody mediated response


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Systemic acquired resistance

The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a "whole-plant" resistance response that occurs following an earlier localized exposure to a pathogen. SAR is analogous to the innate immune system found in animals, and there is evidence that SAR in plants and innate immunity in animals may be evolutionarily conserved. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors to recognize conserved microbial signatures. This recognition triggers an immune response. The first plant receptors of conserved microbial signatures were identified in rice (XA21, 1995)and in Arabidopsis (FLS2, 2000). Plants also carry immune receptors that recognize highly variable pathogen effectors. These include the NBS-LRR class of proteins. SAR is important for plants to resist disease, as well as to recover from disease once formed. SAR can be induced by a wide range of pathogens, especially (but not only) those that cause tissue necrosis, and the resistance observed following induction of SAR is effective against a wide range of pathogens, which is why SAR resistance is sometimes called "broad spectrum." SAR is associated with the induction of a wide range of genes (so called PR or "pathogenesisrelated" genes), and the activation of SAR requires the accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA). 


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