Write a brief account of Geological work of running water and its engineering importance Jan 2013 Dec 2013

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Write a brief account of Geological work of running water and its engineering importance (Jan-2013) (Dec- 2013)

Write a brief account of Geological work of running water and its engineerin importance (Jan-2013) (Dec- 2013)



By:Rajiv

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Running Water

     Water possesses no strength so it will flow on any slope no matter how slight.  The flow of water, or any other fluid, can be characterized as laminar or turbulent.  In laminar flow, lines of flow called streamlines are all parallel with one another.  In other words, all flow occurs in parallel layers with no mixing between layers.  By contrast, in turbulent flow, the streamlines intertwine, causing a complex mixing of the fluid.

     Laminar flow is most easily observed in viscous fluids such as cold motor oil or syrup.  One can also see laminar flow in parking lots where a thin film of water containing oil moves slowly over the surface.  Turbulent flow, on the other hand, occurs in all streams.  The primary control on the type of flow is velocity; roughness of the surface over which it flow occurs also plays a role.   Laminar flow occurs when water flows very slowly, as when groundwater moves through the tiny pores in sediments as soil.  In streams, however, the flow is usually fast enough and the channel walls and bed rough enough so that flow is fully turbulent.   Laminar flow is so slow, and generally so shallow, that it causes little or no erosion.  Turbulent flow is much more energetic and is capable of considerable erosion and sediment transport.

Water resource engineers are employed by organisations right across the water industry. Water suppliers abstract water from the environment, treat it to the required standard and distribute it to household and non-household customers. In the UK, the industry is regulated by the Environment Agency, the Water Services Regulation Authority (Ofwat) and the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI). Engineering and hydrological consultancies and research bodies offer services to assist other organisations in planning and managing water resources.

In the broader field, water resource engineers advise on sustainable use of resources by conserving water, building dams and conveying water to users. Their planning ensures holistic, integrated management of water which balances the needs of nature with those of users.



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