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Embedded-computing-systems-10CS72-->View question

with a neat sketch, explain the role of assemblers and linkers in compilation process?Jun 14

with a neat sketch, explain the role of assemblers and linkers in compilation process. .
Jun 14 


Asked On2017-05-17 06:36:07 by:Rajiv

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Answerd on:2015-12-05 Answerd By:scribed

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Language Processing System

The high-level language is converted into binary language in various phases. A compiler is a program that converts high-level language to assembly language. Similarly, an assembler is a program that converts the assembly language to machine-level language.

Let us first understand how a program, using C compiler, is executed on a host machine.

  • User writes a program in C language (high-level language).

  • The C compiler, compiles the program and translates it to assembly program (low-level language).

  • An assembler then translates the assembly program into machine code (object).

  • A linker tool is used to link all the parts of the program together for execution (executable machine code).

  • A loader loads all of them into memory and then the program is executed.

Before diving straight into the concepts of compilers, we should understand a few other tools that work closely with compilers.

Preprocessor

A preprocessor, generally considered as a part of compiler, is a tool that produces input for compilers. It deals with macro-processing, augmentation, file inclusion, language extension, etc.

Interpreter

An interpreter, like a compiler, translates high-level language into low-level machine language. The difference lies in the way they read the source code or input. A compiler reads the whole source code at once, creates tokens, checks semantics, generates intermediate code, executes the whole program and may involve many passes. In contrast, an interpreter reads a statement from the input, converts it to an intermediate code, executes it, then takes the next statement in sequence. If an error occurs, an interpreter stops execution and reports it. whereas a compiler reads the whole program even if it encounters several errors.

Assembler

An assembler translates assembly language programs into machine code.The output of an assembler is called an object file, which contains a combination of machine instructions as well as the data required to place these instructions in memory.

Linker

Linker is a computer program that links and merges various object files together in order to make an executable file. All these files might have been compiled by separate assemblers. The major task of a linker is to search and locate referenced module/routines in a program and to determine the memory location where these codes will be loaded, making the program instruction to have absolute references.

Loader

Loader is a part of operating system and is responsible for loading executable files into memory and execute them. It calculates the size of a program (instructions and data) and creates memory space for it. It initializes various registers to initiate execution.

Cross-compiler

A compiler that runs on platform (A) and is capable of generating executable code for platform (B) is called a cross-compiler.

Source-to-source Compiler

A compiler that takes the source code of one programming language and translates it into the source code of another programming language is called a source-to-source compiler.


Answerd on:2022-01-31 Answerd By:Muskan-Kumari

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COMPILERS, ASSEMBLERS and LINKERS
Normally the C’s program building process involves four stages and utilizes different ‘tools’ such as a preprocessor, compiler, assembler, and linker. At the end there should be a single executable file. Below are the stages that happen in order regardless of the operating system/compiler and

1. Preprocessing is the first pass of any C compilation. It processes include-files,
conditional compilation instructions and macros.
2. Compilation is the second pass. It takes the output of the preprocessor, and the source
code, and generates assembler source code.
3. Assembly is the third stage of compilation. It takes the assembly source code and
produces an assembly listing with offsets. The assembler output is stored in an object file. 

Answerd on:2015-01-05 Answerd By:arunwebber

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4. Linking is the final stage of compilation. It takes one or more object files or libraries as
input and combines them to produce a single (usually executable) 

Answerd on:2015-01-05 Answerd By:arunwebber

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