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Networks-Laboratory-Manual--10CSL77-->View question

What is IP Spoofing and how can it be prevented

What is IP Spoofing and how can it be prevented?


Asked On2017-05-16 13:06:49 by:neenu2

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Lets see what is IP spoofing is about.

IP spoofing, also known as IP address forgery or a host file hijack, is a hijacking technique in which a cracker masquerades as a trusted host to conceal his identity, spoof a Web site, hijack browsers, or gain access to a network. Here's how it works: The hijacker obtains the IP address of a legitimate host and alters packet headers so that the legitimate host appears to be the source.

The above image shows how the ip spoofing is working.

Types of ip spoofing attacks
Blind spoofing: In this type of attack, a cracker outside the perimeter of the local network transmits multiple packets to his intended target to receive a series of sequence numbers, which are generally used to assemble packets in the order in which they were intended -- Packet 1 is to be read first, then Packet 2, 3 and so on. The cracker is blind to how transmissions take place on this network, so he needs to coax the machine into responding to his own requests so he can analyze the sequence numbers. By taking advantage of knowing the sequence number, the cracker can falsify his identity by injecting data into the stream of packets without having to have authenticated himself when the connection was first established. (Generally, current operating systems employ random sequence number generation, so it's more difficult for crackers to predict the correct sequence number.) 
Nonblind spoofing: In this type of attack, the cracker resides on the same subnet as his intended target, so by sniffing the wire for existing transmissions, he can understand an entire sequence/acknowledge cycle between his target and other hosts (hence the cracker isn't "blind" to the sequence numbers). Once the sequence is known, the attacker can hijack sessions that have already been built by disguising himself as another machine, bypassing any sort of authentication that was previously conducted on that connection. 
Denial-of-service attack: To keep a large-scale attack on a machine or group of machines from being detected, spoofing is often used by the malefactors responsible for the event to disguise the source of the attacks and make it difficult to shut it off. Spoofing takes on a whole new level of severity when multiple hosts are sending constant streams of packet to the DoS target. In that case, all the transmissions are generally spoofed, making it very difficult to track down the sources of the storm. 
Man-in-the-middle attack: Imagine two hosts participating in normal transmissions between each other. In a man-in-the-middle attack, a malicious machine intercepts the packets sent between these machines, alters the packets and then sends them on to the intended destination, with the originating and receiving machines unaware their communications have been tampered with; this is where the spoofing element enters the equation. Typically, this type of attack is used to get targets to reveal secure information and continue such transmissions for a period of time, all the while unaware that the machine in the middle of the transmission is eavesdropping the whole time.
How to prevent IP spoofing
1)Use authentication based on key exchange between the machines on your network; something like IPsec will significantly cut down on the risk of spoofing. 
2)Use an access control list to deny private IP addresses on your downstream interface. 
3)Implement filtering of both inbound and outbound traffic.
4)Configure your routers and switches if they support such configuration, to reject packets originating from outside your local network that claim to originate from within. 
5)Enable encryption sessions on your router so that trusted hosts that are outside your network can securely communicate with your local hosts.

Answerd on:2016-12-13 Answerd By:scribed

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