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Ten-Computer-Tricks-Every-Geek-Should-Know-2-->View question


Asked On2017-05-16 13:20:31 by:scribed

Taged users:
sumeshmanjarimatturNikhil-bharadwajVarshaAnaghaDeepak-H-Lvandana-singhManju-Gondiajithvm

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Unix find command is extremely power full command which could be used to search over entire file directory or a file.

Some use of find command is listed here
basic 'find file' commands
--------------------------
find / -name foo.txt -type f -print             # full command
find / -name foo.txt -type f                    # -print isn't necessary
find / -name foo.txt                            # don't have to specify "type==file"
find . -name foo.txt                            # search under the current dir
find . -name "foo.*"                            # wildcard
find . -name "*.txt"                            # wildcard
find /users/al -name Cookbook -type d           # search '/users/al'

search multiple dirs
--------------------
find /opt /usr /var -name foo.scala -type f     # search multiple dirs

case-insensitive searching
--------------------------
find . -iname foo                               # find foo, Foo, FOo, FOO, etc.
find . -iname foo -type d                       # same thing, but only dirs
find . -iname foo -type f                       # same thing, but only files

find files with different extensions
------------------------------------
find . -type f \( -name "*.c" -o -name "*.sh" \)                       # *.c and *.sh files
find . -type f \( -name "*cache" -o -name "*xml" -o -name "*html" \)   # three patterns

find files that don't match a pattern (-not)
--------------------------------------------
find . -type f -not -name "*.html"                                # find all files not ending in ".html"

find files by text in the file (find + grep)
--------------------------------------------
find . -type f -name "*.java" -exec grep -l StringBuffer {} \;    # find StringBuffer in all *.java files
find . -type f -name "*.java" -exec grep -il string {} \;         # ignore case with -i option
find . -type f -name "*.gz" -exec zgrep 'GET /foo' {} \;          # search for a string in gzip'd files

5 lines before, 10 lines after grep matches
-------------------------------------------
find . -type f -name "*.scala" -exec grep -B5 -A10 'null' {} \;
     (see http://alvinalexander.com/linux-unix/find-grep-print-lines-before-after-search-term)

find files and act on them (find + exec)
----------------------------------------
find /usr/local -name "*.html" -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;      # change html files to mode 644
find htdocs cgi-bin -name "*.cgi" -type f -exec chmod 755 {} \;   # change cgi files to mode 755
find . -name "*.pl" -exec ls -ld {} \;                            # run ls command on files found

find and copy
-------------
find . -type f -name "*.mp3" -exec cp {} /tmp/MusicFiles \;       # cp *.mp3 files to /tmp/MusicFiles

copy one file to many dirs
--------------------------
find dir1 dir2 dir3 dir4 -type d -exec cp header.shtml {} \;      # copy the file header.shtml to those dirs

find and delete
---------------
find . -type f -name "Foo*" -exec rm {} \;                        # remove all "Foo*" files under current dir
find . -type d -name CVS -exec rm -r {} \;                        # remove all subdirectories named "CVS" under current dir

find files by modification time
-------------------------------
find . -mtime 1               # 24 hours
find . -mtime -7              # last 7 days
find . -mtime -7 -type f      # just files
find . -mtime -7 -type d      # just dirs

find files by modification time using a temp file
-------------------------------------------------
touch 09301330 poop           # 1) create a temp file with a specific timestamp
find . -mnewer poop           # 2) returns a list of new files
rm poop                       # 3) rm the temp file

find with time: this works on mac os x
--------------------------------------
find / -newerct '1 minute ago' -print

find and tar
------------
find . -type f -name "*.java" | xargs tar cvf myfile.tar
find . -type f -name "*.java" | xargs tar rvf myfile.tar
     (see http://alvinalexander.com/blog/post/linux-unix/using-find-xargs-tar-create-huge-archive-cygwin-linux-unix
     for more information)

find, tar, and xargs
--------------------
find . -name -type f '*.mp3' -mtime -180 -print0 | xargs -0 tar rvf music.tar
     (-print0 helps handle spaces in filenames)
     (see http://alvinalexander.com/mac-os-x/mac-backup-filename-directories-spaces-find-tar-xargs)

find and pax (instead of xargs and tar)
---------------------------------------
find . -type f -name "*html" | xargs tar cvf jw-htmlfiles.tar -
find . -type f -name "*html" | pax -w -f jw-htmlfiles.tar
    

Answerd on:2016-11-29 Answerd By:scribed

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The find command in UNIX is a command line utility for walking a file hierarchy. It can be used to find files and directories and perform subsequent operations on them. It supports searching by file, folder, name, creation date, modification date, owner and permissions. By using the ‘-exec’ other UNIX commands can be executed on files or folders found.
Syntax:
$ find [where to start searching from]
 [expression determines what to find] [-options] [what to find]

Options :

  • -exec CMD: The file being searched which meets the above criteria and returns 0 for as its exit status for successful command execution.
  • -ok CMD : It works same as -exec except the user is prompted first.
  • -inum N : Search for files with inode number ‘N’.
  • -links N : Search for files with ‘N’ links.
  • -name demo : Search for files that are specified by ‘demo’.
  • -newer file : Search for files that were modified/created after ‘file’.
  • -perm octal : Search for the file if permission is ‘octal’.
  • -print : Display the path name of the files found by using the rest of the criteria.
  • -empty : Search for empty files and directories.
  • -size +N/-N : Search for files of ‘N’ blocks; ‘N’ followed by ‘c’can be used to measure size in characters; ‘+N’ means size > ‘N’ blocks and ‘-N’ means size < 'N' blocks.
  • -user name : Search for files owned by user name or ID ‘name’.
  • \(expr \) : True if ‘expr’ is true; used for grouping criteria combined with OR or AND.
  • ! expr : True if ‘expr’ is false.

Answerd on:2021-12-26 Answerd By:Muskan-Kumari

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Unix find command is extremely power full command which could be used to search over entire file directory or a file.

Some use of find command is listed here
basic 'find file' commands
--------------------------
find / -name foo.txt -type f -print             # full command
find / -name foo.txt -type f                    # -print isn't necessary
find / -name foo.txt                            # don't have to specify "type==file"
find . -name foo.txt                            # search under the current dir
find . -name "foo.*"                            # wildcard
find . -name "*.txt"                            # wildcard
find /users/al -name Cookbook -type d           # search '/users/al'

search multiple dirs
--------------------
find /opt /usr /var -name foo.scala -type f     # search multiple dirs

case-insensitive searching
--------------------------
find . -iname foo                               # find foo, Foo, FOo, FOO, etc.
find . -iname foo -type d                       # same thing, but only dirs
find . -iname foo -type f                       # same thing, but only files

find files with different extensions
------------------------------------
find . -type f \( -name "*.c" -o -name "*.sh" \)                       # *.c and *.sh files
find . -type f \( -name "*cache" -o -name "*xml" -o -name "*html" \)   # three patterns

find files that don't match a pattern (-not)
--------------------------------------------
find . -type f -not -name "*.html"                                # find all files not ending in ".html"

find files by text in the file (find + grep)
--------------------------------------------
find . -type f -name "*.java" -exec grep -l StringBuffer {} \;    # find StringBuffer in all *.java files
find . -type f -name "*.java" -exec grep -il string {} \;         # ignore case with -i option
find . -type f -name "*.gz" -exec zgrep 'GET /foo' {} \;          # search for a string in gzip'd files

5 lines before, 10 lines after grep matches
-------------------------------------------
find . -type f -name "*.scala" -exec grep -B5 -A10 'null' {} \;
     (see http://alvinalexander.com/linux-unix/find-grep-print-lines-before-after-search-term)

find files and act on them (find + exec)
----------------------------------------
find /usr/local -name "*.html" -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;      # change html files to mode 644
find htdocs cgi-bin -name "*.cgi" -type f -exec chmod 755 {} \;   # change cgi files to mode 755
find . -name "*.pl" -exec ls -ld {} \;                            # run ls command on files found

find and copy
-------------
find . -type f -name "*.mp3" -exec cp {} /tmp/MusicFiles \;       # cp *.mp3 files to /tmp/MusicFiles

copy one file to many dirs
--------------------------
find dir1 dir2 dir3 dir4 -type d -exec cp header.shtml {} \;      # copy the file header.shtml to those dirs

find and delete
---------------
find . -type f -name "Foo*" -exec rm {} \;                        # remove all "Foo*" files under current dir
find . -type d -name CVS -exec rm -r {} \;                        # remove all subdirectories named "CVS" under current dir

find files by modification time
-------------------------------
find . -mtime 1               # 24 hours
find . -mtime -7              # last 7 days
find . -mtime -7 -type f      # just files
find . -mtime -7 -type d      # just dirs

find files by modification time using a temp file
-------------------------------------------------
touch 09301330 poop           # 1) create a temp file with a specific timestamp
find . -mnewer poop           # 2) returns a list of new files
rm poop                       # 3) rm the temp file

find with time: this works on mac os x
--------------------------------------
find / -newerct '1 minute ago' -print

find and tar
------------
find . -type f -name "*.java" | xargs tar cvf myfile.tar
find . -type f -name "*.java" | xargs tar rvf myfile.tar
     (see http://alvinalexander.com/blog/post/linux-unix/using-find-xargs-tar-create-huge-archive-cygwin-linux-unix
     for more information)

find, tar, and xargs
--------------------
find . -name -type f '*.mp3' -mtime -180 -print0 | xargs -0 tar rvf music.tar
     (-print0 helps handle spaces in filenames)
     (see http://alvinalexander.com/mac-os-x/mac-backup-filename-directories-spaces-find-tar-xargs)

find and pax (instead of xargs and tar)
---------------------------------------
find . -type f -name "*html" | xargs tar cvf jw-htmlfiles.tar -
find . -type f -name "*html" | pax -w -f jw-htmlfiles.tar

Answerd on:2019-08-30 Answerd By:Annaliya

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