We are building EduLadder(ELADR) - Protocol

The Eladr Protocol is a decentralized, security and efficiency enhanced Web3 noSQL database powered by IPFS as the data storage layer https://ipfs.io/, and the Cardano block chain as the rewards token platform, https://cardano.org/. It provides a JSON based, IPFS layer 2 solution for data indexing and retrieval in an 'append only' file system built with open source Node.js API libraries.

Eladr tokens are designed to incentifised community members as a proof of contribution. Using that they can access diffrent infrastructure built on top of eladr

Using this You can,Buy courses,Reward others and exchange for real money.


Real Problems! Real Experts!

Join Our Telegram Channel !

The Eduladder is a community of students, teachers, and programmers. We help you to solve your academic and programming questions fast.
In eduladder you can Ask,Answer,Listen,Earn and Download Questions and Question papers.
Watch related videos of your favorite subject.
Connect with students from different parts of the world.
Apply or Post Jobs, Courses ,Internships and Volunteering opportunity. For FREE
See Our team
Wondering how we keep quality?
Got unsolved questions? Ask Questions
Billion Drop

We are starting air drop for the month November So that you can test alpha version of our eladr protocol that will release soon. Who ever has ever posted an answer on eduladder is eligible for this. Please update your profile with cardano address to test.

For any question or query please joinOur Telegram Channel !

Countdown Started

List Of Profiles Enrolled
Youtube Videohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnuD8IEan4s

Our Github Repo
FrontEnd BackEnd

We are looking for some great and cool people to work with us. Please sent your resume to admin@eduladder.com


What all are the common defects of making concrete?

Explain in detail what all are the common defects Of making concrete

Asked On2017-05-20 19:05:27 by:scribed

Taged users:

Be first to like this question

Be first to dislike this question
Talk about this  Like  Dislike
View all questions
Freeze-Thaw Effect 

Concrete is very strong in compression but relatively weak in tension. It can and often does crack. Concrete is also fairly porous and subject to forces that absorb and release water. Absorbed water can freeze within the concrete and cause spalling and cracking. 

Chemical Attack 

Chemical attack can occur because concrete is alkaline and chemically reactive. It can be attacked by acids; some alkalis; numerous salt solutions; and organics such as fermenting liquids, sugars, and animal oils, especially if they contain free acids. Seawater will attack concrete. Corrosive solutions penetrating to the steel reinforcing rods may be particularly destructive because the large displacement of the corrosion products of the steel can cause cracking and spalling of the concrete. In addition to the general physical and chemical properties of concrete that make it subject to physical and chemical attack, several other factors influence the makeup of concrete and therefore must be considered before selecting a method of surface preparation. How the concrete will be used (e.g., as structural concrete or for floors), the method used to place the concrete, and the additives that may be present either on the concrete surface or incorporated into it all will affect the strength and the surface condition of the concrete. A discussion of structural concrete, concrete for flooring, and the surface conditions that accompany each follows.


This is a network of very small surface cracks usually spreading out over large areas or the entire surface. Crazing is caused by finishing the concrete with bleed water on top. The bleed water is forced down into the surface by the finisher’s trowel. This increases the ratio of water to cement, creating a weak surface layer.


Thin flakes of concrete come loose and flake or peel off the surface. The sizes of the flakes vary, but they usually increase over time and with traffic. Conditions that cause scaling and include freeze/thaw cycles, deicing agents with calcium or sodium chloride, fertilizers containing nitrates, working in bleed water, or improper curing. Any one of the can cause scaling, but it’s usually a combination of two or more that lead to severe scaling. Blisters These are typically about ¼ to 1-inch diameter, but it’s not impossible to get 3 to 4 inch 


They are not easily seen until they are broken by traffic. Blisters are caused by working and finishing the surface while water or air is still working its way up through the mix to the surface. 


Spalling is similar to scaling except large chunks instead of just flakes break loose. This indicates a severe weakness in some parts or the entire project. It is more likely to happen during freeze thaw conditions. 

Also known as chalking, this is a fine loose powder caused by the deterioration of a weak surface. Causes of dusting include working in bleed water, improper curing, a bad sand-to-cement ratio, or exposure to carbon monoxide caused by using an unvented heat source to keep a project warm. 

Foreign Objects 

Foreign objects can often slip into the form prior to pouring and may not become evident until after the forms are stripped. If fully embedded, the foreign object does not create a coating problem. But a piece of rope on the surface disappearing into the concrete is a problem. It must be removed, usually by chipping, and the concrete must be restored. 


Efflorescence is more likely to be found on concrete that has been in place for a while. Concrete contains water-soluble salts. As water from the interior of the concrete migrates to the surface and evaporates, salts are deposited on the surface, usually as a white stain. Efflorescence can occur with concrete, brick, or concrete block construction. It can be removed with acid etching. The best way to prevent its recurrence is with adequate waterproofing.

Answerd on:2016-02-13 Answerd By:scribed

Be first to like this answer

Be first to dislike this answer
Talk about this  Like  Dislike

You might like this video:Watch more here

Watch more videos from this user Here

Learn how to upload a video over here

Lets together make the web is a better place

We made eduladder by keeping the ideology of building a supermarket of all the educational material available under one roof. We are doing it with the help of individual contributors like you, interns and employees. So the resources you are looking for can be easily available and accessible also with the freedom of remix reuse and reshare our content under the terms of creative commons license with attribution required close.

You can also contribute to our vision of "Helping student to pass any exams" with these.
Answer a question: You can answer the questions not yet answered in eduladder.How to answer a question
Career: Work or do your internship with us.Work with us
Create a video: You can teach anything and everything each video should be less than five minutes should cover the idea less than five min.How to upload a video on eduladder