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Carnatic-Music-Vocal-CBSE-2018-->View question

Write short notes on any three of the following : (a) Thiruppugazh (b) Jaati (c) Eduppu (d) Murchchana (Carnatic-Music-Vocal-CBSE-2018)

Write short notes on any three of the following :
(a) Thiruppugazh
(b) Jaati
(c) Eduppu
(d) Murchchana (Carnatic-Music-Vocal-CBSE-2018)

Asked On2019-04-04 05:50:19 by:naikaumprakash

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(a)Thiruppugazh (Tamil: திருப்புகழ், Tiruppukaḻ, IPA/Tamil: [t̪iɾ̪upːʉɡəɻ] , meaning "Holy Praise" or "Divine Glory") is a 15th-century anthology of Tamil religious songs dedicated to Lord Murugan, the son of Lord Shivan, written by the poet-saint Arunagirinaadhar (Tamil: அருணகிரிநாதர், Aruṇakirinātar, [aɾ̪uɳəɡɨɾɨn̪aːd̪ər̪]) . The anthology is considered one of the central works of medieval Tamil literature, both for its poetical and musical qualities, and for its religious, moral and philosophical content.

(b) The jatis were similar to the modern concept of raga in that they provided the melodic basis for composition and, presumably, improvisation. They were not merely scales, but were also assigned 10 melodic characteristics: graha, the initial note; amsha, the predominant note; tara, the note that forms the upper limit; mandra, the note that forms the lower limit; nyasa, the final note; apanyasa, the secondary final note; alpatva, the notes to be used infrequently; bahutva, the notes to be used frequently; shadavita, the note that must be omitted in order to create the hexatonic (six-note) version of the mode; and audavita, the two notes that must be omitted to create the pentatonic (five-note) version of the mode.

(c) The thaalam comes into picture only with Krithis (or other forms like Pallavi) and a composition's lyric and melody are closely connected with the thaalam. Many songs start with the aavartham's start.
However the melodic lines may start at a point later than the aavartham's start. Many compositions in Aadhi thaalam start after one and half aksharams. Sometimes this is called Dhesaadhi. Many compositions which are composed for commencement at the beginning of aavartham are often sung leaving half aksharam in the beginning and contracting the time for the first 2 syllables. This is done for an illusory quickening in tempo and in subsequent variations the same line may start at the beginning of the thaalam cycle itself. Commencing a composition after the beginning of thaalam cycle is termed as 'anaagatham' or 'thalli eduppu' in Tamil. According to the number of aksharams skipped in the beginning it is termed as 'arai' (half a place) or 'onrarai idam' (one and half places). Starting at the beginning of the cycle is termed as 'sama eduppu'. Compositions are also started at three fourths ('mukkaal idam') aksharams (often a problem for beginners!)
When the song is set to 2 kalai, half a place or 'arai idam' is actually the point of the repetition of the beat, while those at three fourth place will actually be half way between the repetition of the beat and the first count
Rarely a composition may also commence before the beginning of the cycle. This is called Atheetha eduppu '.

(d) The murchanas were thus more or less analogous to the European modal scales that begin progressively on D, E, F, G, etc. A third parent scale, gandharagrama, was mentioned in several texts of the period and some even earlier but is not included in the system laid out in the Natya-shastra.

Answerd on:2019-05-09 Answerd By:amitoj-singh

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