Describe the steps involved to allocate each concurrent subsystem to a hardware unit either a general purpose processor or a fractional unit

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Describe the steps involved to allocate each concurrent subsystem to a hardware unit, either a general purpose processor or a fractional unit.

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Each concurrent subsystems must be allocated to a hardware unit,either a general purpose
processor or a specialized functional unit. The system designer must:
1) Estimate performance needs & the resources needed to satisfy them.
2) Choose hardware or software implementation for subsystems.
3) Allocate software subsystems to processors to satisfy performance needs &
   minimize inter-processor communication.
4) Determine the connectivity of the physical units that implement the subsystem. 
Estimating Hardware Resource Requirements :
• The decision to use multiple processors or hardware functional units is based on
the need for higher performance than a single CPU can provide (or fault tolerant
requests). Numbers of processors determine the volume of computations and
speed of the machine.
• The system designer must estimate the required CPU power by computing the
steady state load as the product of the number of transactions per second and the
time required to process a transaction. Experimentation is often useful to assist in
Hardware/Software Trade-offs :
Hardware can be viewed as a rigid but highly optimized form of software. The
system designer must decide which subsystems will be implemented in hardware and
which in software. 
Allocating Tasks To Processors :
Tasks are assigned to processors because:
• Certain tasks are required at specific physical locations
• Response time or information flow rate exceeds the available communication
bandwidth between a task and a piece of hardware.
• Computation rates are too great for single processor, so tasks must be spread
among several processors.

Determining Physical connectivity:
After determining the kinds & relative numbers of physical units, the system
designer must choose the arrangement & form of the connections among the physical
units. The following decisions must be made:
1) choose the topology of connecting the physical units. Association in the object
model, client-supplier relationship in the functional model corresponds to the
physical connections. Some connections may be indirect, but the designer must
attempt to minimize the connection cost of important relationships. 
       2) Choose the topology of repeated units. If several copies of a particular kind of
unit or group of units are include for performance reasons, their topology must be
specified. The object model & functional model are not useful guides. The
topology of repeated units usually has a regular pattern, such as a linear sequence,
a matrix, a tree or a star. The designer must consider the expected arrival patterns
of data and the proposed parallel algorithm for processing it.
3) Choose the form of the connection channels and the communication protocols.
The system design phase may be too soon to specify the exact interfaces among
units, but the general interaction mechanisms & protocols must usually be chosen.
Interactions may be asynchronous, synchronous or blocking . The bandwidth of
the communication channels must be estimated and the correct kind of connection
channels chosen. 
Contributed by, Satya Shiromani



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