viewnotes/2163/DME 101 Management Principles and Values

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Database-Management-Systems---10CS54-VTU-notes-->View question

Asked by:anonymousguy7799

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• Incompatibilities between a host programming language and the database model, e.g.,type mismatch and incompatibilities; requires a new binding for each language 
• set vs. record-at-a-time processing 
• need special integrators to loop over query results and manipulate individual values Steps: 
• Client program opens a connection to the database server
 • Client program submits queries to and/or updates the database 
• When database access is no longer needed, client program closes (terminates) 42 the connection Embedded SQL 
• Most SQL statements can be embedded in a general-purpose host programming language such as COBOL, C, Java
 • An embedded SQL statement is distinguished from the host language statements by enclosing it between EXEC SQL or EXEC SQL BEGIN and a matching END-EXEC or EXEC SQL END (or semicolon)
 • Syntax may vary with language 
• Shared variables (used in both languages) usually prefixed with a colon (:) in SQL 

Answerd By:Nikhil-bharadwaj

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Syntax: In the same code the programmer must use two programming styles and must follow two different grammars. Similar concepts are denoted differently (for instance, strings in C are written within “…”, in SQL – ‘…’) and different concepts are denoted similarly (for instance, in C = denotes an assignment, in SQL – a comparison). 

Typing: Types and denotations of types assumed by query and programming languages differ, as a rule. This concerns atomic types such as integer, real, boolean, etc. Representation of atomic types in programming languages and in databases can be significantly different, even if the types are denoted by the same keyword, e.g. integer. Alossless conversion between such types could be impossible and might imply some performance overhead. This also concerns complex types, such as tables (a basic data type constructor in SQL, absent in programming languages). Popular programming languages introduce static (compile time) type checking, which is impossible e.g. in SQL (because query languages are based on dynamic rather than static binding). 
Semantics and language paradigms: The concept of semantics of both languages is totally different. Query languages are based on the declarative style (what is to be retrieved rather than how), while programming languages are based on the imperative style (a sequence of commands to a machine, which accomplishes what). 
Abstraction level: Query languages free the programmers from majority of the details concerning data organization and implementation, for instance, organization of collections, presence or absence indices, etc. In programming languages these details usually are explicit(although may be covered by some libraries). 
Binding phases and mechanisms: Query languages are based on late (run-time) binding of all the names that occur in queries, while programming languages are based on early (compile and linking time) binding. Thus, from the point of view of a program, queries are simply strings of characters

Answerd By:Nikhil-bharadwaj

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