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MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Unit-2
Unit -2 Planning
Planning is the first and foremost function of management Planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do, how to do and who is to do it. It is in essence the exercise of foresight. The nature of planning may be understood in terms of it being a rational approach, open system, flexibility and pervasiveness. Planning can be classified on the basis of coverage of activities, importance of contents in planning, approach adopted in planning process, time dimension and degree of formalization and so on. are for non-repetitive activities and standing plans (mission, objectives, strategies, policies and procedures) are for repetitive activities. The steps involved in planning process are establishing goals/objectives, establishing planning premises, deciding the planning period, identifying alternatives, evaluation and selection of alternative, developing derivative/supportive plans, and measuring and controlling process. Decision making is selecting the best among alternative courses of action. Decisions may be classified as programmed and non-programmed decisions, major and minor decisions, simple and complex decisions, strategic and operational (tactical) decisions. The environment of decision may be of three types; certainty, risk and uncertainty