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You are here:Open notes-->VTU-->COMPUTER-NETWORKS--I10CS55-unit-8


Unit 8

 Multimedia Networks
 Basics of Computer and Multimedia Networks: • Computer networks are essential to modern computing. • Multimedia networks share all major issues and technologies of computer networks. • The ever-growing needs for various multimedia communications have made networks one of the most active areas for research and development. • Various high-speed networks are becoming a central part of most contemporary multimedia systems. OSI Network Layers: OSI Reference Model has the following network layers: • Physical Layer: Defines electrical and mechanical properties of the physical interface, and species the functions and procedural sequences performed by circuits of the physical interface. • Data Link Layer: Species the ways to establish, maintain and terminate a link, e.g., transmission and synchronization of data frames, error detection and correction, and access protocol to the Physical layer. • Network Layer: Defines the routing of data from one end to the other across the network. Provides services such as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control, and sequencing of packets. • Transport Layer: Provides end-to-end communication between end systems that support end-user applications or services. Supports either connection-oriented or connectionless protocols. Provides error recovery and flow control. • Session Layer: Coordinates interaction between user applications on different hosts, manages sessions (connections), e.g., completion of long file transfers. • Presentation Layer: Deals with the syntax of transmitted data, e.g., conversion of different data formats and codes due to different conventions, compression or encryption. • Application Layer: Supports various application programs and protocols, e.g., FTP, Telnet, HTTP, SNMP, SMTP/MIME, etc

Multimedia Network Communications and Applications Characteristics of Multimedia Data:

 • Voluminous: they demand very high data rates, possibly dozens or hundreds of Mbps. • Real-time and interactive: they demand low delay and synchronization between audio and video for “lip sync”. In addition, applications such as video conferencing and interactive multimedia also require two-way traffic. • Sometimes bursty: data rates fluctuate drastically, e.g., no traffic most of the time but burst to high volume in video-on-demand. Quality of Multimedia Data Transmission: Quality of Service (QoS): depends on many parameters • Data rate: a measure of transmission speed. • Latency (maximum frame/packet delay): maximum time needed from transmission to reception. • Packet loss or error: a measure (in percentage) of error rate of the packetized data transmission. • Jitter: a measure of smoothness of the audio/video playback, related to the variance of frame/packet delays. • Sync skew: a measure of multimedia data synchronization. (a) High jitter, (b) Low jitter. Multimedia Service Classes: • Real-Time (also Conversational): two-way traffic, low latency and jitter, possibly with prioritized delivery, e.g., voice telephony and video telephony. • Priority Data: two-way traffic, low loss and low latency, with prioritized delivery, e.g., E-commerce applications. • Silver: moderate latency and jitter, strict ordering and sync. One-way traffic, e.g., streaming video, or two-way traffic (also Interactive), e.g., web surfing, Internet games. • Best Effort (also Background): no real-time requirement, e.g., downloading or transferring large files (movies). • Bronze: no guarantees for transmission. 


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