Advance Computer Architecture 10CS74 unit 6

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Advance Computer Architecture [10CS74] unit-6


? Unlimited amount of fast memory
- Economical solution is memory hierarchy
- Locality
- Cost performance
Principle of locality
- most programs do not access all code or data uniformly.
? Locality occurs
- Time (Temporal locality)
- Space (spatial locality)
? Guidelines
? Smaller hardware can be made faster
? Different speed and sizes
Goal is provide a memory system with cost per byte than the next lower level
? Each level maps addresses from a slower, larger memory to a smaller but faster
memory higher in the hierarchy.
? Address mapping
? Address checking.
? Hence protection scheme for address for scrutinizing addresses are also part of
the memory hierarchy.
Why More on Memory Hierarchy?
? The importance of memory hierarchy has increased with advances in performance
of processors.
? Prototype
`? When a word is not found in cache
? Fetched from memory and placed in cache with the address tag.
? Multiple words( block) is fetched for moved for efficiency reasons.
? key design
? Set associative
? Set is a group of block in the cache.
? Block is first mapped on to set.
≫ Find mapping
≫ Searching the set
Chosen by the address of the data:
(Block address) MOD(Number of sets in cache)
? n-block in a set
? Cache replacement is called n-way set associative.
Cache data
- Cache read.
- Cache write.
Write through: update cache and writes through to update memory.
Both strategies
- Use write buffer.
this allows the cache to proceed as soon as the data is placed in the
buffer rather than wait the full latency to write the data into memory.
used to measure the benefits is miss rate
No of access that miss
No of accesses
Write back: updates the copy in the cache.
? Causes of high miss rates
? Three Cs model sorts all misses into three categories
? Compulsory: every first access cannot be in cache
? Compulsory misses are those that occur if there is an infinite cache
? Capacity: cache cannot contain all that blocks that are needed for
the program.
? As blocks are being discarded and later retrieved.
? Conflict: block placement strategy is not fully associative
? Block miss if blocks map to its set.
Miss rate can be a misleading measure for several reasons
So, misses per instruction can be used per memory reference
Cache Optimizations
Six basic cache optimizations
1. Larger block size to reduce miss rate:
- To reduce miss rate through spatial locality.
- Increase block size.
- Larger block size reduce compulsory misses.
- But they increase the miss penalty.
2. Bigger caches to reduce miss rate:
- capacity misses can be reduced by increasing the cache capacity.
- Increases larger hit time for larger cache memory and higher cost and power.
3. Higher associativity to reduce miss rate:
- Increase in associativity reduces conflict misses.
4. Multilevel caches to reduce penalty:
- Introduces additional level cache
- Between original cache and memory.
- L1- original cache
L2- added cache.
L1 cache: - small enough
- speed matches with clock cycle time.
L2 cache: - large enough
- capture many access that would go to main memory.
Average access time can be redefined as
Hit timeL1+ Miss rate L1 X ( Hit time L2 + Miss rate L2 X Miss penalty L2)
5. Giving priority to read misses over writes to reduce miss penalty:
- write buffer is a good place to implement this optimization.
- write buffer creates hazards: read after write hazard.
6. Avoiding address translation during indexing of the cache to reduce hit time:
- Caches must cope with the translation of a virtual address from the processor to
a physical address to access memory.
- common optimization is to use the page offset.
- part that is identical in both virtual and physical addresses- to index the cache.
Advanced Cache Optimizations
? Reducing hit time
? Small and simple caches
? Way prediction
? Trace caches
? Increasing cache bandwidth
? Pipelined caches
? Multibanked caches
? Nonblocking caches
? Reducing Miss Penalty
? Critical word first
? Merging write buffers
? Reducing Miss Rate
? Compiler optimizations
? Reducing miss penalty or miss rate via parallelism
? Hardware prefetching
? Compiler prefetching
First Optimization : Small and Simple Caches
? Index tag memory and then compare takes time
? _ Small cache can help hit time since smaller memory takes less time to index
? E.g., L1 caches same size for 3 generations of AMD microprocessors:
K6, Athlon, and Opteron
? Also L2 cache small enough to fit on chip with the processor avoids time
penalty of going off chip
? Simple _ direct mapping
? Can overlap tag check with data transmission since no choice
? Access time estimate for 90 nm using CACTI model 4.0
? Median ratios of access time relative to the direct-mapped caches are 1.32,
1.39, and 1.43 for 2-way, 4-way, and 8-way caches
Second Optimization: Way Prediction
? How to combine fast hit time of Direct Mapped and have the lower conflict
misses of 2-way SA cache?
? Way prediction: keep extra bits in cache to predict the “way,” or block within
the set, of next cache access.
? Multiplexer is set early to select desired block, only 1 tag comparison performed that
clock cycle in parallel with reading the cache data
? Miss _ 1st check other blocks for matches in next clock cycle
? Accuracy ≫ 85%
? Drawback: CPU pipeline is hard if hit takes 1 or 2 cycles
- Used for instruction caches vs. data caches
Third optimization: Trace Cache
? Find more instruction level parallelism?
How to avoid translation from x86 to microops?
? Trace cache in Pentium 4
1. Dynamic traces of the executed instructions vs. static sequences of instructions
as determined by layout in memory
? Built-in branch predictor
2. Cache the micro-ops vs. x86 instructions
? Decode/translate from x86 to micro-ops on trace cache miss
+ 1. _ better utilize long blocks (don’t exit in middle of block, don’t enter
at label in middle of block)
- 1. _ complicated address mapping since addresses no longer aligned to
2 multiples of word size
- 1. _ instructions may appear multiple times in multiple dynamic traces
due to different branch outcomes
Fourth optimization: pipelined cache access to increase bandwidth
? Pipeline cache access to maintain bandwidth, but higher latency
? Instruction cache access pipeline stages:
1: Pentium
2: Pentium Pro through Pentium III
4: Pentium 4
- _ greater penalty on mispredicted branches
- _ more clock cycles between the issue of the load and the use of the data
Fifth optimization: Increasing Cache Bandwidth Non-Blocking Caches
? Non-blocking cache or lockup-free cache allow data cache to continue to supply
cache hits during a miss
? requires F/E bits on registers or out-of-order execution
? requires multi-bank memories
? “hit under miss” reduces the effective miss penalty by working during miss vs.
ignoring CPU requests
? “hit under multiple miss” or “miss under miss” may further lower the effective
miss penalty by overlapping multiple misses
? Significantly increases the complexity of the cache controller as there
can be multiple outstanding memory accesses
? Requires multiple memory banks (otherwise cannot support)
? Pentium Pro allows 4 outstanding memory misses
Value of Hit Under Miss for SPEC
? FP programs on average: AMAT= 0.68 -> 0.52 -> 0.34 -> 0.26
? Int programs on average: AMAT= 0.24 -> 0.20 -> 0.19 -> 0.19
? 8 KB Data Cache, Direct Mapped, 32B block, 16 cycle miss, SPEC 92
Sixth optimization: Increasing Cache Bandwidth via Multiple Banks
? Rather than treat the cache as a single monolithic block, divide into independent
banks that can support simultaneous accesses
? E.g.,T1 (“Niagara”) L2 has 4 banks
? Banking works best when accesses naturally spread themselves across banks _
mapping of addresses to banks affects behavior of memory system
? Simple mapping that works well is “sequential interleaving”
? Spread block addresses sequentially across banks
? E,g, if there 4 banks, Bank 0 has all blocks whose address modulo 4 is 0;
bank 1 has all blocks whose address modulo 4 is 1; …
Seventh optimization :Reduce Miss Penalty: Early Restart and Critical
Word First
? Don’t wait for full block before restarting CPU
? Early restart?As soon as the requested word of the block arrives, send
it to the CPU and let the CPU continue execution
? Spatial locality _ tend to want next sequential word, so not clear size of
benefit of just early restart
? Critical Word First?Request the missed word first from memory and
send it to the CPU as soon as it arrives; let the CPU continue execution while
filling the rest of the words in the block
? Long blocks more popular today _ Critical Word 1st Widely used
Eight optimization: Merging Write Buffer to Reduce Miss Penalty-
? Write buffer to allow processor to continue while waiting to write to memory
? If buffer contains modified blocks, the addresses can be checked to see if
address of new data matches the address of a valid write buffer entry
? If so, new data are combined with that entry
? Increases block size of write for write-through cache of writes to sequential
words, bytes since multiword writes more efficient to memory
? The Sun T1 (Niagara) processor, among many others, uses write merging
Ninth optimization: Reducing Misses by Compiler Optimizations
? McFarling [1989] reduced caches misses by 75% on 8KB direct mapped cache,
4 byte blocks in software
? Instructions
? Reorder procedures in memory so as to reduce conflict misses
? Profiling to look at conflicts (using tools they developed)
? Data
? Merging Arrays: improve spatial locality by single array of compound
elements vs. 2 arrays
? Loop Interchange: change nesting of loops to access data in order stored
in memory
? Loop Fusion: Combine 2 independent loops that have same looping and
some variables overlap
? Blocking: Improve temporal locality by accessing “blocks” of data
repeatedly vs. going down whole columns or rows
Merging Arrays Example
/* Before: 2 sequential arrays */
int val[SIZE];
int key[SIZE];
/* After: 1 array of stuctures */
struct merge {
int val;
int key;
struct merge merged_array[SIZE];
Reducing conflicts between val & key; improve spatial locality
? Conflict misses in caches not FA vs. Blocking size
? Lam et al [1991] a blocking factor of 24 had a fifth the misses vs. 48
despite both fit in cache
Tenth optimization Reducing Misses by Hardware Prefetching of
Instructions & Data
? Prefetching relies on having extra memory bandwidth that can be used without
? Instruction Prefetching
? Typically, CPU fetches 2 blocks on a miss: the requested block and the
next consecutive block.
? Requested block is placed in instruction cache when it returns, and
prefetched block is placed into instruction stream buffer
? Data Prefetching
? Pentium 4 can prefetch data into L2 cache from up to 8 streams from 8
different 4 KB pages
? Prefetching invoked if 2 successive L2 cache misses to a page, if
distance between those cache blocks is < 256 bytes
Eleventh optimization: Reducing Misses by Software Prefetching Data
? Data Prefetch
? Load data into register (HP PA-RISC loads)
? Cache Prefetch: load into cache
(MIPS IV, PowerPC, SPARC v. 9)
? Special prefetching instructions cannot cause faults;
a form of speculative execution
? Issuing Prefetch Instructions takes time
? Is cost of prefetch issues < savings in reduced misses?
? Higher superscalar reduces difficulty of issue bandwidth
The techniques to improve hit time, bandwidth, miss penalty and miss rate generally
affect the other components of the average memory access equation as well as the
complexity of the memory hierarchy.


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