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1)Define mechanical energy and explain?
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2)What is a grinder machine explain it with a diagram
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3)Explain joining process in detail.
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4)Define nitrogen cycle with diagram
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5)Define nitrogen cycle with diagram.
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6)What is Quasi-Static Process?
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7)Define the term enthalpy.
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8)Define the term internal energy.
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9)What is meant by thermodynamic work?
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10)Explain the throttling process.
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11)What is meant by steady flow process?
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12)What are some important biogeochemical processes that cycle nutrients?
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13)The wall of a pipe of radius 1 m is at a uniform temperature of 200 oC, and is covered by insulation of thickness 0.1 m. The ambient air outside the insulated pipe is at 20 oC and has heat transfe r coefficient of 10 W m-2 K-1. The thermal conductivity of t he insulation material is 0.05 W m-1 K-1. If the heat transfer occurs at ste ady state, the temperature (in oC) of the outer surface of insulation is ______ __ __ (rounded off to second decimal place) .
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14)A hot liquid is to be cooled in a 1-1 shell and tube heat exchanger from 80 oC to 50 oC. Cooling water enter s the tube side at 30 oC, and exits at 45 oC. The properties of the liquids are constant. Also, the overall heat transfer coefficient is same for counter -current and co - current modes. T he percentage saving in heat transfer area for counter -current option with respect to the area of co -cu rrent option is __ _____ ___ (rounded off to third decimal place) .
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15)Glucose monomers are joined together by glycosidic linkages to form a cellulose polymer. During this process, changes in the free energy, total energy, and entropy respectively are represented correctly by which ONE of the following options?
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16)O ne mole of helium gas in an isolated system undergoes a reversible isothermal expansion at 25 C from an initial volume of 2.0 liters to a final volume of 10.0 liters. The change in entropy (S) of the surroundings is ______ J K1 (up to two decimal places).
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17)The vapour pressure of a liquid at 8 °C is 2.7 kPa. Its enthalpy of vaporization is constant and equal to 42700 kJ/kmol. Take R = 8.314 kJ/kmol.K. The temperature (in °C) at a vapour pressure of 13.5 kPa is
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18)O ne kg of air (that can be considered a calorically perfect gas with characteristic gas constant R = 287 J/kg-K and specific heat ratio 1.4 ) undergoes a constant-volume process from an initial static pressure of 1 bar to a final static pressure of 4 bar. The increase in entropy (in J/kg-K) of air is ______
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19)A t equilibrium, the maximum number of phases in a three-component system at CONSTANT PRESSURE is:
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20)I f the solid-liquid interfacial energy increases by 10%, the energy barrier for homogeneous nucleation of a spherical solid from the liquid, will change by:
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21)F or the reaction: 4Ag(s, pure) + O2(g)⟶2Ag2O(s, pure), the standard enthalpy change, Δ𝐻0 = − 61080 J, and the standard entropy change, Δ𝑆0 = − 132.22 J K−1, in the temperature range from 298 K to 500 K. The temperature above which Ag2O decomposes in an atmosphere containing oxygen at a partial pressure 𝑝𝑂2 = 0.3 atm is __________ (in K to one decimal place).
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22)A 1 mol piece of copper at 400 K is brought in contact with another 1 mol piece of copper at 300 K, and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium. The entropy change for this process is __________ (in J K1 to three decimal places)
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23)A n engine operates on the reversible cycle as shown in the figure. The work output from the engine (in kJ/cycle) is ______ (correct to two decimal places).
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24)S team in the condenser of a thermal power plant is to be condensed at a temperature of 30C with cooling water which enters the tubes of the condenser at 14C and exits at 22C. The total surface area of the tubes is 50 m2, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2000 W/m2 K. The heat transfer (in MW) to the condenser is ______ (correct to two decimal places).
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25)F ive moles of gas A (volume V1) and 3 moles of gas B (volume V2) were kept in separate containers. These two gases are completely transferred to a new container of volume V. Assuming isothermal condition, and that the work done is only mechanical, the entropy change of the system is ____________ Joules K-1. (R = 8.3 J K-1 mole-1)
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26)T he molar heat capacity of a substance is represented in the temperature range 298 K to 400 K by the empirical relation , 14 p m C bT J K–1 mol–1, where b is a constant. The molar enthalpy change when the substance is heated from 300 K to 350 K is 2 kJ mol–1. The value of b is___________ J K–2 mol–1. (Up to two decimal places)
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27)T wo moles of an ideal gas X and two moles of an ideal gas Y, initially at the same temperature and pressure, are mixed under isothermal-isobaric condition. The entropy change on mixing is __________J K–1. (Up to one decimal place. Use R = 8.31 J K–1 mol–1)
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28)T he enthalpy of vaporization of a liquid at its boiling point ( 200 K b T ) is 15.3 kJ mol–1. If the molar volumes of the liquid and the vapour at 200 K are 110 and 12000 cm3 mol–1 respectively, then the slope dP dT of the liquid-vapour boundary is _________ kPa K–1. (Up to two decimal places. Note: 1 Pa = 1 J m–3)
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29)Which is not a mixture? (NIFT)
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30)C onsider the following properties: (P) temperature (Q) specific gravity (R) chemical potential (S) volume The option which lists ALL the intensive properties is
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31)F or absorption of H2S from a mixture with hydrocarbon vapour into an aqueous alkanolamine solution, the liquid phase mass transfer resistance is
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32)A n insulated storage tank contains 1000 kg liquid of specific heat 10 kJ kg-1 K-1. The liquid is heated by saturated steam, condensing in a helical coil at a temperature of 180 oC. The heat transfer area of the coil is 0.1 m2. If the overall heat transfer coefficient is constant at 1000 W m-2 K-1, then the time (in hours) required to raise the temperature of the liquid in the tank from 20 oC to 80 oC is ____________ (rounded off to second decimal place).
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33)T he wall of a pipe of radius 1 m is at a uniform temperature of 200 oC, and is covered by insulation of thickness 0.1 m. The ambient air outside the insulated pipe is at 20 oC and has heat transfer coefficient of 10 W m-2 K-1. The thermal conductivity of the insulation material is 0.05 W m-1 K-1. If the heat transfer occurs at steady state, the temperature (in oC) of the outer surface of insulation is __________ (rounded off to second decimal place).
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34)V apour bubbles are formed in the nucleate boiling regime at a frequency of 10 bubbles per second per nucleation site. There are 100 nucleation sites per m2 of heating area. The latent heat of vapourization and the density of vapour under the operating condition are 1000 kJ/kg and 1 kg/m3 respectively. The diameter of each bubble is 10-3 m. Assume that the entire heat supplied is used for vapour generation. The heat flux (in Watt per m2 of heating area) is ______________ (rounded off to third decimal place).
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35)A n azeotropic mixture of ethanol and water is to be separated in a distillation column using benzene as an entrainer. At the column operating conditions, two liquid phases are formed on a tray. The degree(s) of freedom of the system for the choice of intensive properties at equilibrium is(are) ___________
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36)A hot liquid is to be cooled in a 1-1 shell and tube heat exchanger from 80 oC to 50 oC. Cooling water enters the tube side at 30 oC, and exits at 45 oC. The properties of the liquids are constant. Also, the overall heat transfer coefficient is same for counter-current and cocurrent modes. The percentage saving in heat transfer area for counter-current option with respect to the area of co-current option is __________ (rounded off to third decimal place).
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37)T he humidity of air at a dry-bulb temperature of 65 oC is 0.025 kg water/kg dry air. The latent heat of vaporization of water at 0 oC is 2500 kJ/kg. The psychrometric ratio of air is 0.95 kJ (kg dry air)-1 K-1. Considering 0 oC as reference temperature, the enthalpy of air (in kJ/kg) at its adiabatic saturation temperature of 35 oC is ___________ (rounded off to two decimal places).
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38)In a closed piston-cylinder system, methane was observed to obey the following equation of state P V nb nRT ( ) where b = 0.029 m3 /mol. The temperature and volume are 500 oC and 5 m3 respectively for 100 moles of methane. At this state of the system, the isobaric rate of change of temperature with volume (in oC/m3 ) is __________ (rounded off to second decimal place).
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39)State difference between proof-of-work & proof-of-stake?
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