Which one of the following modifications is common toboth protein and DNA GATE Biotechnology 2013

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Which one of the following modifications is common toboth protein and DNA? GATE-Biotechnology-2013



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Histones, especially the amino-terminus tail can also be modified in a number of ways, in addition to methylation. Such alterations include the addition of acetyl groups (acetylation), phosphate groups (phosphorylation), ubiquitin proteins (ubiquitylation), and SUMO proteins (sumoylation). These modifications to histone proteins and DNA can either inhibit or promote coiling or condensation of the chromatin. Collectively, these epigenetic modifications lead to changes in chromatin organization, which in turn determines the expression of the associated genes, ultimately influencing an organism’s growth and development. For example, DNA methylation plays an important regulatory role in determining the fate of embyos.In mammals, targets of DNA methylation can range from individual genes to entire chromosomes. During development, for example, DNA methylation plays a major role in inactivating one of the two copies of the X chromosome in female mammals.


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