Define duty
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Define duty?



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Definition goes here
"The term duty means the area of land that can be irrigated with unit volume of irrigation water. Quantitatively, duty is defined as the area of land expressed in hectares that can be irrigated with unit discharge, that is, 1 cumec flowing throughout the base period, expressed in days. "

Lets examine it little bit.

Imagine a field growing a single crop having a base period B days and a Delta ∆ mm which is being supplied by a source located at the head (uppermost point) of the field, as shown in Figures 2 and 3.

The water being supplied may be through the diversion of river water through a canal, or it could be using ground water by pumping
If the water supplied is just enough to raise the crop within D hectares of the field, then a relationship may be found out amongst all the variables as

Hence, knowing two of the three variables B, D and ∆ the third party may be found out. The duty of irrigation water depends upon a number of factors; some of the important ones are as follows:
•  Type of crop: As different crops require different amount of water for maturity, duties are also required. The duty would vary inversely as the water requirement of crop. 
• Climate season and type of soil: Some water applied to the field is expected to be lost through evaporation and deep percolation.
Evaporation loss has a direct bearing on the prevalent climate and percolation may be during drier seasons when the water table is low and soil is also dry. Percolation loss would be more for sandy soils than silty or clayey soils. 
• Efficiency of cultivation methods: If the tillage and methods of water application are faulty and less efficient, then the amount of water actually reaching the plant roots would be less. Hence, for proper crop growth more water would be required than an equivalent efficient system. Also, if the water is conveyed over long distances through field channels before being finally applied to the field, then also the duty will rise due to the losses taking place in the channels.


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